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๐Ÿฅธ Verify the authenticity

Did you notice anything wrong with our verification in the previous step?

Nothing? Let's see:

  • You've checked that the Credential data is valid and you've verified that the corresponding attestation is on chain and not revoked. All good.

  • But: are you sure that the entity/person that sent you the Credential owns it? What if a malicious actor stole this Credential and is now presenting it to you as theirs? We'll see how to mitigate this.

Understand credential theft mitigation

To mitigate credential theft, a verifier can initiate a cryptographic challenge with a claimer.

The underlying idea is simple: to prove their DID, the claimer signs on-the-fly - that's important - a piece of data under the same DID as the DID associated with their Credential. By checking this signature's validity, the verifier makes sure that the Credential is owned by the person who just sent it.

What piece of data should be signed? It doesn't really matter; it can be an arbitrary number picked by the verifier. What matters is that this number should be used only once. Otherwise, the cryptographic challenge is worthless.


In a cryptographic communication, an arbitrary number that can be used just once is called a nonce.

Here's how it works:

  1. The verifier sends a nonce to the claimer as a challenge.
  2. The claimer sends back a presentation of the credential with the nonce signed with their encryption key.
  3. The verifier checks the following:
    • Does the signature on the nonce match the public key contained in the Credential? If so: the entity/person who just sent the Credential plus the signed nonce is also the owner of this Credential. If not: the Credential might be stolen.
    • Is the data valid? Is the attestation on-chain and not revoked? See the simple Verification for more information about the validation logic.

OK, let's see this in action.

As the verifier: create a nonce

To generate a random, unique piece of data, we'll use the Kilt SDK to generate secure nonces starting from a randomly generated UUID. The most important properties of nonces are randomness and uniqueness.

Create a new file nonce.js, and paste the following code into it:

const Kilt = require('@kiltprotocol/sdk-js')

const nonce = Kilt.Utils.UUID.generate()
console.log('Nonce: ', nonce)

Run the code by running this command in your terminal, still within your kilt-rocks directory:

node nonce.js

You should see in your logs the resulting HEX string that will be used as a nonce; it should look something like this: 0x942ab89b01671faeec84a76f4a8eae9b57ec12bf06157f8a87315cd29a5e0d25.

Copy it, you'll need it in the next step.

As the claimer: create the presentation, which will sign with the challenge and prepare the data

Let's put together the data you would send back to the verifier, as the claimer.

Create a new file create-presentation.js.

Paste the following code into it (make sure to replace <nonce> and <credentialJSONString> with the data you copied earlier):

import * as Kilt from '@kiltprotocol/sdk-js'

export async function main(
claimerLightDid: Kilt.Did.LightDidDetails,
credential: Kilt.Credential,
nonce: string,
keystore: Kilt.Did.DemoKeystore
): Promise<Kilt.Credential> {
// sign the nonce as the claimer with the claimer's DID
const presentation = await credential.createPresentation({
signer: keystore,
claimerDid: claimerLightDid,
challenge: nonce,

// this is the message to send to the verifier
const dataToVerify = {

console.log('KILT Credential:\n', presentation.request.claim)

JSON.stringify(dataToVerify, undefined, 2)
return presentation

Run the code by running this command in your terminal, still within your kilt-rocks directory:

node create-presentation.js

You should see in your logs the dataToVerifyJSONString, which is a string representation of the data to verify.

Copy it, you'll need it in the next step.

As the verifier: verify the presentation and credential

Create a new file verification-of-presentation.js.

Paste the following code into it (make sure to replace <dataToVerifyJSONString> and <nonce> with the values obtained in the previous steps):

import * as Kilt from '@kiltprotocol/sdk-js'

export async function main(
presentation: Kilt.Credential,
nonce: string,
keystore: Kilt.Did.DemoKeystore
) {
await Kilt.connect()
// verify the presentation from the nonce (<nonce> is the uuid you've generated as the verifier)
const isSenderOwner = await Kilt.Credential.verify(presentation, {
challenge: nonce,
console.log('isSenderOwner: ', isSenderOwner)

// proceed with verifying the credential itself
// --> see simple "Verification" step in this tutorial

// disconnect from the chain
await Kilt.disconnect()
return isSenderOwner

Run the code by running this command in your terminal, still within your kilt-rocks directory:

node verification-of-presentation.js

You should see in your logs that isSenderOwner is true: this means that the claimer presenting the credential is the same that owns it, so it has not been stolen or compromised.

Looking good!

You can also see what would happen when a malicious actor presents a stolen credential to a verifier. Try this out:

  • Create another account and light DID, let's refer to it as Mallory (= malicious);
  • Sign the presentation above with Mallory's light DID, hence creating a new presentation;
  • Create a new invalidDataToVerify object with this new presentation and with Alice's credential we've been using so far;
  • As a verifier, verify the presentation in invalidDataToVerify via Kilt.Credential.verify;
  • You'll see that this verification will return false: the verifier will know that this credential is not owned by Mallory.